September 1st, 2015
Version 3.3 of the station and beta version of the storage 3.1 have been released with updated Web client.
All programs have been tested for work on the Windows 10 systems.
Switched to a new version of the development environment - Delphi XE6.
All programs have been developed in two versions - 32-bit and 64-bit.
The 64-bit technology in programs will significantly increase the amount of memory available for these programs.
Switched to a new version of the software error logging program. Eureka Log was being used prior, now - Mad Except.
Fully switched to Unicode coding, all the interface files, the Web client of the storage, and the database began working in UTF-8.
Saved compatibility with old databases in WIN 1251 coding.
Significant redesign of the program:
Side windows in the main program window have been removed: 'Navigation panel' and 'Scanogram'.
Side Tool Panel has been deleted.
The user panel has been rewritten, it has become a new Tool Panel and a new navigation bar.
All instruments from deleted panels and windows have been distributed between tree-like panels and additional control windows.
The interface of the settings panel has been completely rewritten: you can add, delete, and move buttons in the tree-like button menu.
A global check of the combination of hotkeys has been added, the program checks whether current hotkey is available in the current window, it forbids binding of the same hotkeys on different actions.
Since the number of actions and tools in the program is sufficiently large, there’s a built-in filter (according to the names of the tools) in the panel settings window to help you find them in the list.
The top menu has been significantly extended - all tools are displayed directly in the list of menu items, which has improved usability of the program.
A new set of icons has been written, which can be displayed in two sizes - normal, as before, and increased 2 or 4 times. This has improved display of stations on the monitors with higher resolution.
Sets of buttons can be switched in real time at any time of working with the program.
The display of measuring overlays has been improved. They are 'activated' (displayed in color) when in contact with the mouse cursor, in their area of activity.
Handling of the 'region' tool has been improved. Now this is a separate overlay, parameters of which (the center of calculation and threshold levels) can be edited after the measurement in real-time mode.
The 'pixel map' tool has been added to the histogram window. It allows to accurately (by separate pixels) determine HU levels of the image section within the rectangular selection. It is intended mainly for more accurate measurement of diffusion studies.
A new interface and algorithm has been written for the Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR).
MPR got a more comfortable look – when switched on, the axial, sagittal, and coronal views are shown, which can be arbitrarily changed by rotary cursors.
Scroll allows you to move along a set of images.
The resulting set of images can be saved in the new series, while size can be changed arbitrarily, along with position, number of images, and area of reconstruction.
You can save either coronal, axial or saggital images or two series - coronal + sagittal at the same time.
Positioning lines works on both MPR images and conventional open series. You can open several series (on one or multiple monitors) + 1-2 reconstructions; all the lines of the image positions will be calculated correctly for each window.
Additional display modes, "View study in a new window ','View study on a free monitor', 'View series on different monitors' are now available directly from the Study Manager.
Images are now loaded in a multithreaded mode. On computers with multiple cores (which now represent the vast majority), the load speed of the whole images set for reconstruction has increased by 2-5 times. According to the results of measurements, a series of 1600 CT images opens from the station in 15 seconds on a computer with a processor i7.
'Fusion' mode is now available from the main program window.
The tool 'Image stitching' has been written.
It allows stitching together any number of different images into one whole image.
It’s currently working with the modalities CR, DX, DR, RF.
It allows stitching the images arbitrarily – any image with any other one; they can be arranged arbitrarily as well - vertically, horizontally, diagonally, however is comfortable and needed.
It allows cropping the result image to the desired borders.
It allows changing the relative scale, zoom and win/level of each added image separately.
A tool 'Set the same size' has been added, it allows to automatically adjust images zoom to selected one, so that the overall image is properly calibrated after saving. Size of the images as well as scale coefficients is taken into account.
When saving, an algorithm for maximum quality preservation of sttched images has been chosen.
Images are scaled in the 16-bit mode when saved, using the Lanczos filter, saving also is done in 16-bit for the highest possible quality of the result.
Saved image is added to one of the initial studies. If you are using images from different studies, the program allows you to choose which study will include the result image.
Processing of saving occurs in multithreaded mode.
A tool that saves a current state of view in the list of hanging protocols has been written. It has become easier to create hanging protocols for different types of studies.
Hanging protocols can save the state of the splitting of the working area to the series.
Adding any images to the database, such as – adding lost files with the help of configurator or copying from tabs 'local folder' or 'dicomdir' is now processed by the server.
Makhaon CD Lite, Makhaon Net Lite.
Ability to split the work area into the series has been added.
As in the station – side panels has been removed, reference lines are drawn directly on the image (if enabled).
Ability to convert images into various uncompressed Transfer Syntaxes has been added: Implicit Little Endian, Explicit Little Endian, Explicit Big Endian.
Ability to convert images into various uncompressed Transfer Syntaxes has been added: Implicit Little Endian, Explicit Little Endian, Explicit Big Endian.
Makhaon Web Client.
Added function 'Create study'. You can collect multiple files in BMP, JPG and PDF formats and merge them into a single DICOM study. Storage will automatically upload the files, convert them to DICOM and create a corresponding entry in the studies database. Study parameters and patient data are specified before downloading.
Function ‘Attach files to the study’ has been added. Files in BMP, JPG, PDF format can be additionally added to the existing study. The Storage will downloaded the files, convert them to DICOM and "attach" them to the existing study.
A new feature has been written: Creating and editing study reports. Later, these reports can be displayed at Makhaon stations or on the Web.
A new tool 'Filters' has been added. Filter from the list can be used for images.
The same filters that exist in the station are available.
Filters can be applied consistently.
Image processing operates in full 16-bits with the help of WebGL.
New rights have been added for users: 'view reports' and 'editing reports'.
March 30th, 2015
The final version of the station 3.2 has been released. The final storage version 3.0 and web viewer have been released.
It works not only with static IP, but dynamic (domain) names.
Resolve IP operates with any DICOM nodes - both incoming and outgoing, on all DICOM protocols.
Resolve IP operates in the domain network and in the network without a domain as well.
DICOM libraries have been upgraded to the latest 2014c version.
Makhaon DICOM Dump.
Dump has significantly expanded the functionality of verification of DICOM files.
Verification of Value Multiplicity (VM).
Verification of Value Representations (VR).
Verification of the length of all the lines.
Verification of all numerical values.
Verification of character sets of the lines.
Verification of the unique identifiers (UID) for compliance with the standard. The absence of leading zeroes, numbers, point separators and so on.
Verification of additional padding values.
Verification of keywords in tags in the directory.
Verification of the file DICOMDIR: existence of files, referenced by DICOMDIR, referential integrity, correct file names, etc.
Some additional verification of tag sequences (SQ).
Verification results are displayed in a convenient form for the user - as colorization of tags.
Backup saving and restoring is now performed without the help of gbak.exe, and with the help of api database; this has improved operation when gbak.exe is not installed in the system.
Log of database backup can be seen directly in the configurator window.
Improved handling of Storage commitment.
Studies that have been stored in the Storage, and confirmed by the Storage commitment mechanism are now considered as archived. This has greatly improved operation of the automatic removal of the studies.
After changes in the study (after writing or changing the report, changes of the patient data), studies are no longer considered as archived, they must be re-sent to the Storage for data synchronization.
Copying of report templates from station to station has been improved.
Handling of 14-bit VOI LUT has been added.
Added thumbnail of display series.
Improved handling of Storage commitment.
Ability to update patient and study data with the help of commands from hospital or radiological systems (HIS/RIS) has been added to the Storage. Update takes place with commands HL7 ADT^A08 and ADT^A40.
Generating cascading updates between multiple Storages using messages HL7 is also possible.
Ability to automatically add files to the database from any preset folder has been added.
A log of user actions has been added. We prepare Storage for compliance to requirements of HIPAA.
This version supports the following logging operations:
Creating a user.
Changing user data.
Removing a user.
Querying a list of studies on DICOM. Query filters is being logged.
Retrieve study on DICOM. Is being logged what research was requested.
A successful user login from web interface.
Unsuccessful user login from web interface.
User logout from web interface.
View study on the Web. Viewed study is being logged.
Creating a DICOM node.
Creating an image volume.
All actions are working for the Web client and for the GUI.
For actions (depending on the type), date and time, user name (or DICOM node), user e-mail, patient’s name, patient’s ID, and additional information are saved.
List of actions can be displayed, filtered by any logged field, by date, list can be sorted by any logged fields.
Service of the Storage (search for lost records and files) is now possible not only for all the volumes at the same time, but also in selected volumes.
Makhaon Web Client.
Added new tool. 3D-cursor – it’s a tool that displays the position of the point on all simultaneously open series of tomography study.
Improved changes of Window/Level.
Tool "probe-point" has been updated.
The mechanism of an editing of tool "ruler" has been changed.
A large number of internal changes and improvements.
Added preset values of window/level for different anatomical areas (computed tomography).
Added measurements for ultrasound imaging.
Supports English language interface.
Ability to display pdf-files.
Ability to display study reports.
Ability to display and measure ECG in DICOM format.
Supports WebGL (Web Graphics Library) technology, which allows to increase the speed on compatible browsers:
Mozilla Firefox 4.0 and higher
Google Chrome 9 and higher
Opera 12.0 or higher
Apple Safari (support is not fully implemented, it is recommended to disable WebGL in the settings for now).
Added menu item in the "View" tab, where a direct link is generated to view the research and access it without the authorization of the service.
Exporting study images in .jpg format.
Ability to work with remote archives: automatic search of studies in remote storages when it’s absent in local storage; cascading update of patient data and/or study in all related storages (with help of HL7).
Increased operating stability.
Connection HL7 log (switchable) has been added.
October, 24, 2013
The new station version 3.2 and storage beta version 3.0 are released.
The 3D cursor is written. You can set cursor on any image of the series. In this case station tries to select automatically in all other opened series the slice nearest to the point, located most closely to the cursor point in the 3D space. Color of cursor is changed depending on whether it is possible to find a slice or no (in case it is possible it changes into green, and in case of failure it changes into red or blue). The location of cursor relative to the slice is also taken into consideration (blue or red depending on the position of the cursor - above the plane or below the plane).
The algorithm works correctly even in case the series are not full loaded in memory.
Algorithm works correctly with the series with oblique slices.
The electrocardiogram displaying is improved (ECG modality). ECG measurements calibration in millivolts and seconds is added.
The calibration impulse is always reduced to one millivolt now.
The tool is added - the line passing through all the waves simultaneously. This allows you to better see the timing of the peaks on the ECG and measure the amplitude of the signal in all the deflections simultaneously.
The position angles in angiography on the series thumbnails are added. This simplifies the selection of the series for the viewing.
The opportunity to work with PDF files is added. Import from PDF to encapsulated DICOM, the viewing and printing of the PDF encapsulated files.
In case querying studies from Makhaon Storage the check boxes “Viewed” and “Described” are transmitted.
The work of archiving algorithm on DICOM devices is improved.
The study manager started processing not only “Described” check box but also “Viewed” check box.
The overlay values are rounded up in order to improve the values display: now the 3.4999999954767 is displayed as 3.5.
The opportunity appeared to start the station with command-line parameters -OpenPatientID or -OpenStudyUID. In this case the station opens the study at once according to the Patinet ID or the DICOM Study UID found. The second run of the station with parameter opens the study in the first program copy started instead of opening the second copy. It is very convenient in case of integration with other software packages (such as HIS or RIS).
The user interface (study manager) is improved. After the query of the remote device or after the folder reading the status is displayed on the screen, in case of lack of results or in case of an error. Also the animated image appears during the reading or querying process.
The lay-out modification of the window for the set selection from several series sets is done. The set can be selected with one pressing of the button.
The opportunity appeared to set the binds of the keyboard keys to the interface controls (hot buttons settings).
In the “Local database” window the opportunity to select the displayed database fields and set the preview and tables size appeared.
The special window for the selection of the screen layout for several series is created for mammography.
The information concerning auto-delete function is displayed in the server (on/off status and options).
The images can be not only captured from these or those sources but also imported from the electronic media and added to the current series (file import appeared).
Apart from the images it is possible to import the PDF files in order to create the encapsulated DICOM PDF documents.
PDF documents are displayed in the preview window.
The opportunity to obtain the data of studies on the DICOM Query protocol appeared. Videograbber can attach images or documents in PDF format to any study, available in DICOM network. Alongside there is no need to copy the studies to the Videograbber database.
Makhaon Net Lite
The opportunity is added to start the Makhaon Net Lite with command-line parameters - OpenPatientID or -OpenStudyUID. In case you start the program in this way, Lite starts the study by the found Patinet ID or by DICOM Study UID. The second run with the parameter opens the study in the first started program copy instead of the second copy opening. It is very convenient in case of integration with the other software packages (such as HIS or RIS).
Net Lite is able to open the discs recorded in DICOM format.
The possibility of router work with server plug-ins is added.
The queries for patient lists in DICOM to the storage (DICOM Query, DICOM Get) are now processed in the multithreaded mode. In the previous version it worked in serialization mode, and all the queries were placed in a queue. In the new version the queries are processed simultaneously and independently.
The queues can be stopped or cleared.
The beta version of the leap-ahead web-interface is written.
The web-interface is created with use of the brand-new technology HTML5 and it doesn’t require any external browser plugin. Interface DOES NOT require Java, Flash, Dot Net, SilverLite, Adobe AIR, etc.
There is no need to install anything on your computer, mobile phone or browser to make it function (Zero Footprint DICOM Viewer). Modern browser with HTML5 technology support is quite enough. Web viewer makes it completely possible to display the studies located in the storage. The images are transferred from storage to viewer in unchanged form (jpg file compression is not applied; gzip file compression is applied with no loss in image quality).
The 16-bit images can be transferred, and later Window/Level values are scaled up by the viewer itself in the browser.
The 8-bit and 24-images can also be transferred.
With help of Makhaon Storage the viewer can view any images, that can be viewed by the full version of the workstation or by the Lite station.
The multi-frame images are supported. The viewer is able to change the Window/Level values, scale and pan in real time mode.
The operation speed is kept without changes even for the large scale images (for example, for mammographies).
Downloading and preprocessing of the files by the viewer is realized in parallel streams relative to the view, and doesn’t interfere into the displaying process, which makes the work with images fast and convenient.
Image processing tools: image pan, scale, window/level, series navigation, overlay selection, overlay-distance, overlay-angle, probe-point, horizontal mirroring, vertical mirroring, clockwise rotation, inversion, fast scaling to workspace margins, 1:1 scale (without image reduction and image expansion), reset function.
One can see the angle information overlays on the image, functioning identically with the same overlays in the station.
In the bottom and on the right measuring bars are displayed (in case the image is calibrated).
Workspace can be subdivided into windows in 16 preset ways. Every window is able to display the separate series.
Sidewise the series manager is displayed (series thumbnails). One can select any series from the series available in the study to have it displayed it in the current window.
In the manager it is possible to see the central images of each series, name of series, and the number of images in series.
In the “archive” bookmark the list of studies and the list filters are displayed.
The user can select the list of displayed database fields which is the most convenient for him from all available.
Filters can filter the data according to any fields of the database available.
For convenience the filters are displayed in two variants – reduced (where only the “patient name” field and some system fields can be seen) and extended (the filters for all table fields can be seen).
Several system filters are added (display all studies, display studies uploaded by the user, display private user studies. System filters function in combination with the basic filters.
Storage supports the on-line mode. It is possible to create an on-line file repository there.
There is the opportunity for the on-line registration for the users with the registration confirmation through e-mail.
There is the e-mail user password recovery mode.
Storage supports the work through SSL (automatically, without any settings in the browser or storage).
Storage supports the compression of the files, transferred to the customers in GZIP (automatically, without any settings in the browser or storage).
You can install certificates for SSL, as self-signed ones, as signed by the certification center.
Storage makes it possible to upload the user files (it can work as on-line DICOM data depository).
It is possible to download files in DICOM format (separate files or several files at once, as well as the folders). Storage will sort the uploaded files by studies and series automatically.
It is possible to upload files previously compressed by the archive or archives. The file unpacking is realized with the help of 7z archiver library, all the basic archivers (such as zip, 7z, rar, tar, gz, lzh) are supported. The iso disc image processing is also possible.
It is possible to download files as to the public upload space, as to the private one.
In case of loading files to the public upload space the studies can be displayed for all the storage users.
In case of loading files to the private upload space the studies can be viewed only by the user who loaded them and to the administrators.
Storage is able to automatically anonymizĺ uploaded studies. It is possible to select the new patient name for the study (for convenience of the search in the long general list of the anonymizĺd studies).
After the upload procedure storage generates link to provide access to the study without log-in to the system of this kind: http://yoursite.com/view.html?s=yZB3kxTuKTLvNlmQ – to give you the opportunity to share or transfer the link to the study somewhere in the internet.
After upload storage sends the list of the studies found and the links to the studies on the user e-mail.
The links to the studies work for any kind of studies (anonymizĺd or not), as public, as private ones. The user decides himself if he should give the link to anybody else or not.
All the opportunities for remote storage management and administration available in the web-interface.
Adding, deleting, modification and verify of DICOM devices (DICOM nodes) and images volumes; data transfer from volume to volume; user adding, deleting and modification; storage options; database processing – database statistics, backup, image database maintenance, queue manager, etc.
In new version the storage is able to function in local networks as well as in the internet (as the on-line data depository).
May, 7, 2013
The Workstation version 3.1 and Storage version 2.0 are released.
The licensing system is changed. The system has got such options as mammography, tomography, angiography, 3D, which makes it possible to minimize the price in different workstation applications.
The user interface is improved. The window of CD creation, the window of recording the data to removable media and the window of automatic settings are rewritten. The preview and the list of historical studies are added in the local database window. Preview functions as for the local studies as for the remote ones.
Mammograms are scaled from the center of the screen; it is impossible to shift the mammograms from the center of the screen.
The displaying of the overlays and marks, received from the automatic diagnostics programs (CAD) for mammograms is written.
The mammograms inversion is performed without background inversion (air inversion). The background density on the mammograms is not changed with the change of window/level values.
The stations can back up the studies not only to the CDs but also to the DICOM devices. The Storage Commitment SCU protocol support is written. The corresponding option for the remote devices – “PACS” (storage commitment) is added to the package configurator.
The automatic study deleting service is relocated from the station to the server; it considers the studies archived on the DICOM devices. The compound series (such as multi-phase, multi-component and simply pasted ones) are automatically subdivided into sets before the start of the multi-slice reconstruction mode or before the 3D reconstruction library open. The algorithm of automatic splitting was tested on the great number of various compound series. There is also an opportunity to set the image set manually.
The images inadequate for reconstruction (for example the ones without angular points and directing vectors) are automatically rejected.
The opportunity appeared for the study viewing right after the retrieve of this study from the remote device. You can query as for one as for several studies, and they will be open for the viewing right after they appear in the database. The function works as for the main study manager as for the “small manager” – for the window “Local database”.
DICOM files can be added right to the local database (“Import DICOM').
The opportunity appeared to use the Fusion mode of the 3D reconstruction library. It is mostly used in the combined PET-CT studies.
The RAW DATA records processing is added to dicomdir.
The option of studies placement on the screens is added to the automatic settings.
The user interface – the study manager window – is improved.
The HL7 logging is added to the user interface.
Makhaon Package Configurator
The opportunity for DICOM printers to add several media sizes appeared.
The option of graphic displaying on the screen is added (“Interpolation”). There are three variants: “bicubic” (recommended), “bilinear” and “nearest neighbor”.
The licensing system is changed. Several storage functionality sets appeared, starting from the minimal functionality ones, intended for the work in small institutions with one or two devices (the cheapest version) and finishing with the fully functional storage, intended for connecting a great number of hospitals to the single network (the most powerful one). The specific feature of our storage that differs our storages by other producers is the absence of any constraints (in maximal configuration). There are no constraints as for the number of devices, traffic and the amount of the data saved per year. There is the information about saving 200 million images into the storage and keeping the proper functioning of the storage mentioned.
The remote devices got the additional setting “Priority adding to database”. In case you set this function, files received from this device will be added to the top of the queue of files added to the database (while on default the files are added to the bottom of the queue).
Query/retrieve functions on the 'PATIENT' level.
The opportunity to read and save the DICOM files with various character sets, such as utf8, gb18030.
The following character sets support is implemented: ISO_IR 100, ISO_IR 101, ISO_IR 109, ISO_IR 110, ISO_IR 144, ISO_IR 127, ISO_IR 126, ISO_IR 138, ISO_IR 148, ISO_IR 166, ISO 2022 IR 87, ISO 2022 IR 149, GB18030, ISO_IR 192, ISO 2022 IR 144.
The databases in installers are created with help of the database creation scripts. It improved the compatibility of the database versions.
New kinds of films are added for the printing on DICOM printer: MAMMO CLEAR FILM, MAMMO BLUE FILM.
March, 1, 2012
The version 3.0 of the Workstation and 1.9 of the Storage were released.
The storage is divided in two parts (two exe files). The new storage consists of the service, able to function as any other Windows service, and graphic user interface (GUI), which can be loaded in case of need.
There is no need to use the external applications being the starters for the storage service.
In case of 2008 Windows server there is no restrictions as for the use of graphic interface at the same time with the service. The previous Storage version was able to function in two modes: as the application (not a service) with a graphic interface, or as the service but without any graphic interface. As for the new version, there are no restrictions of this kind here.
The user interface that is the Storage settings interface was improved.
The user interface of the main page is improved. The sequence of the newly created studies saving is simplified a lot. The options for the Raster Technology frame grabbers were added. The so called MPPS (Modality Performed Procedural Step) processing was added. After start of the study or after you cancel it corresponding MPPS messages will be generated. The messages are generated for the further processing in PACS (for example messages signaling about the end of the medical study can be processed on the Worklist). The new version of grabber is MPPS SCU now.
The new program was released: Makhaon display
It’s intended to replace the rare and expensive brand displays.
It’s able to display the video signal, captured by the Raster Technology frame-grabbers. It’s also able to save the pictures displayed on the screen to the BMP format.
The new simplified version of the Doctor workstation intended for work with X-ray and ultrasonic equipment was released. This version of program is cheaper than the multi-modality version. The Makhaon PACS package will be released in two versions now. The Multi-modality Doctor Workstation and X-Ray&US Doctor Workstation.
The user interface comprising the study protocol window, create CD window, main window, DICOM image information is improved.
The information import and export are joined together in the corresponding main window menu items.
Not only the export of the separate images from the current series (as it was in the previous version) but the export of the whole current series is possible now. The export formats is BMP, JPG, TIFF, DCM, and AVI.
The export to the AVI files separated in the series is possible now. It realized in the study manager window. It happens in following way: the user selects one or several studies (one or several series), the program saves the selected studies or series separating them in several AVI files. One AVI file is created for one series. All usual AVI options as the frame size, codec, image quality, compression, etc. are available here.
The new tool ‘volume measurement’ is added. The volume is calculated according to the area of the outlined objects on different slices. The distance between slices is also taken into account. The new tool ‘density ratio calculation’ is added.
The spelling check is added; the protocol of the medical study and medical report are spell checked in a real time mode. You can also create the user dictionary for the words not available in the current dictionary version. The unknown words are outlined with cyan color.
In the create CD window the information of the compact disk as well as the information about series, tracks, about the session state is added.
In the print window it is possible to merge cells, in which the images for print are put in. It is possible to merge two or more cells, and the merged cells will look as the one single cell. There can be several merges realized within one and the same page. There can be different merges on the different print pages. The merges can be canceled with one button click.
In the print window it is possible to add the scanogram of the current image (in case the intersection of the added image and current image will be found) in any of the four image corners.
The automatic search of the historic studies in the storage is added (any DICOM device can be regarded as the archive). The search is possible by the patient’s name with or without fuzzy search, by the patient’s ID. The search can be realized for the same modality as the obtained study, either for all modalities, or for the indicated ones. The found studies will be displayed in the context menu of the station studies listing buttons. The historic studies can be inquired by the server automatically or can be enquired by the user in case of need. The options for working with the historic studies are added to the DICOM server.
Support of the new files type, Enhanced CT, is added.
The enhanced CT and MR formats take up less memory while file opening now.
Support of the new ECG modality is added. The electrocardiograms can be saved in a standard way by the devices in the DICOM format. The station can view and print files of this kind.
The 32-bit BMP files support is added.
The opportunity to print and save the images to the database in DICOM format from the 3D reconstruction library is added.
The graphic engine for the image display is updated. The higher quality bilinear and bicubic interpolation can work in the hardware mode with the help of pixel shaders. New engine used DirectX 9 (instead of previous version that uses the DirectX 7). The new engine functioning speed is higher on the large displays and in case of certain computer configurations.
The histogram calculation and display are improved. For the area objects the calculation of the pixel number can be realized for the outlined area. The CT image histogram is calibrated in Hounsfield units now.
The display of the DICOM overlays containing in DICOM files (as the group of tags 6xxx) is added.
It's possible to rotate and mirror the radiological modality images as individual ones or as in series (in the previous versions it was possible to do it just for the integrated images series).
The files dropped to the station (Drag-N-Drop) are opened as the integrated series. It is possible to open the files as the series in a fast way without saving them to the database (‘Open Files’).
The ‘Area’ tool functionality is improved.
The principle of working with the remote sessions was changed. It is possible to start one copy of application in the remote session now (workstation wasn’t able to function in a remote session before).
Machaon package configurator
The user interface is improved; there are the protocol colorization editor and additional database settings now.
New option ‘send the study protocol’ is added to the DICOM device settings. In case of protocol sending to the third-party DICOM devices it will be more comfortable to work with this function being deactivated.
The new image inversion tool is added.
The opportunity for working with several modalities of the one and the same DICOM device is added.
The so called MPPS - Modality Performed Procedural Step processing is added. In case you get the corresponding messages from the devices, Worklist Manager can place the flags to show that the studied is completed and to hide them in the request answers.
February, 24, 2011
2.9 station version and 1.8 storage version are released.
The international version's processing is improved. The new 'auto' language variant appeared (it is switched in the lang.itf file), the programs read the operating system language setting and load the corresponding language files.
There are several variants for dicomdir file reading: there is the fast one, when the dicomdir file is read only; the ordinary one when the dicomdir file and the part of DICOM files are read. And there is the full one - where the dicomdir file and all the files are read, as well as multiframes in files too.
During the disks write, the station adds the studies to the database. It gives the opportunity for the Makhaon Lite for CD to instantly open the studies without preliminary dicomdir files reading.
In case of data saving to the portable data medium (flash disk) it is possible not just to store it to the root folder but also to any folder.
The option "Patient information change" - "enable" was added. When the option is enabled, the program permits to change the patient information, and after the data was updated in the database, it is also updated in the DICOM files. When the option is disabled, the patient information in database and DICOM files are prohibited to edit.
In the study manager light version ("Local database") three variants of filters were created - "Last two days" "All the database" "All the patient's studies".
In case of remote database request (DICOM Query) there is the capability to use the fuzzy search by patient's full name (if there is such functionality support in the remote database).
The fuzzy search may also be utilized when conducting a local search of previous (history) studies.
The "Methaphon" algorithm is applied in the Russian version search function.
The opportunity to specify several different modalities in the remote requests filters appeared.
The report templates filter is added, the hint message in report templates is improved.
The image calibration interface is improved.
A fuzzy search on patients' full names is added. The "Methaphon" algorithm is applied. The standard fuzzy search support in DICOM protocol is created.
In case of disk opening it checks the database for studies. If there is at least one study present it doesn't read dicomdir file. If there is only one study on the disk, then Makhaon lite will open it without a preliminary study manager displaying.
Light can be started from any hard disk folder and any removable media folder.
April, 5, 2010.
The Makhaon PACS 2.9 beta-version and Makhaon Storage 1.8 are soon to be released.
All projects are rewritten from Delphi 7 to Delphi 2010.
All the programs interface is rewritten on the basis of the other interface components SpTBX. Thanks to this fact the interfaces and visual presentations became consistent to the maximum.
The new "help panel" is added. The context mini-help as also added to the most part of controls, for different modes, and for the work with all the overlays.
There are several new interface themes (the often requested "dark" interface theme in particular), and there is an opportunity now to download the external interface theme.
The network DICOM connections are rewritten to the new components, Indy 9 is updated to Indy 10.
The work with modality names on the study level is also rewritten. And now, in case of several modalities in one and the same study all of them will be listed in the "modalities" field.
The new graphic engine has been created. It operates in two switched modes: hardware mode and software mode. The hardware mode is 30% faster than the previously set one. The software engine is 300-500% faster on the large displays (3-5 megapixels).
In software mode the bicubic (more quality) interpolation is applied.
The software speed won't decrease at 256 color modes.
In case of data export to hard disk, flash disk or CD the anonimization is added. Most parts of DICOM tags in files, dicomdir, HTML pages, and study report are anonymized.
The file collection in case of data writes to CD or flash disk is performed as a split thread and doesn't interfere into the main work.
The series thumbnails can be displayed in four positions as to the main display.
The search in the window "DICOM header" is improved.
The series synchronization interface is improved.
The temporary series unsynchronization (with 'Shift' key pressed) is added, providing the precise synchronized series association.
The function of DSA-results saving in the form of DICOM images into the database is added.
The new Window/level mode is added: "Window/level according to dynamic range".
The software events are collected in the integrated log window. The events of DICOM connect, file collections, file folder readings are there.
The function of mode control with double PC mouse click on the images is added. Depending on the options double click either expends (maximizes) the current image (the 'Current image' mode), or activates/stops the 'animation' mode.
The study manager is able to open several studies chosen for the view.
The modality 'SR' (structured report) reading support is added. The reports, written on the third-party station or modalities will be displayed together with the integrated program reports, and it is possible to print them.
The 'remote devices auto setting' functionality is added. It allows you to add the devices sending DICOM Echo (Verify) to the database automatically.
The volumes are subdivided according to their types - on-line volumes and long-term storage volumes. The corresponding options are added.
The 'storage management' functionality is created. It gives the opportunity to transfer the studies from on-line volumes to the long-term storage ones and delete automatically the studies from the long-term storage volumes.
Storage supports the HL7 network protocol for messages sending.
May, 11, 2009.
The special mammogram study processing is added (the MG-modality studies are considered to be mammogram studies).
The study, not depending on the way it was performed (in several series or in several images of one or two series) is collected in the sequence needed for the view - Right cranio-caudal, Left cranio-caudal, Right medio-lateral oblique, Left medio-lateral oblique. Some images are mirrored automatically to reach the view mode needed.
If there is only one display in the system, then the images are scrolled with the help of PC mouse in pairs (the 2x1 splitting is previously applied).
If there are two displays in the system, then the study is opened on two displays at once for the simultaneous displaying of all the four standard mammogram images at one and the same time.
The image shift starts symmetrically to the view center - the right-hand and left-hand images are shifted to the center by two.
April, 16, 2009.
All the programs:
The function of JPEG lossy 12 bits, JPEG lossless 12-16 bits, JPEG 2000 reversible & irreversible, JPEG-LS format files display is added.
The lite studies interface window is added. Here studies for the last two days only are displayed. The window is not modal, that is it can stay open after the study opening.
December, 24, 2008.
The DSA mode. The real time mode mask shifting with the PC mouse is added. The full series mask can be shifted as well as the single image one.
The DSA mode. The masks position is saved in the DICOM file, and restored from this file. The file is saved according to the standard, and can be properly interpreted by the third-party stations. The third-party stations (apparatus) mask shifting data will be also considered in case of series opening.
In the thumbnails series the thumbnail is not the first frame, but the middle-series frame. It makes the series authentication more comfortable.
The option to display all the series or multi-frame series (so-called film loops) only is added.
The image size automatic calibration according to the catheter caliber is improved.
The calibration and auto-calibration can be applied to the current image as well as to the series.
The series thumbnails can be displayed either at the bottom, or to the left from the main images, in one or two rows.
The new, median filter is added.
The angle calculation is made before its full transfer to the image.
The new StarBurn disks write components are used now. The old MagicBurner components are not supported by the manufacturer any more.
The capability for new data recording to removable media such as flash cards and diskettes is added. The data in this case is recorded in the standard DICOM media format with dicomdir file generation.
The options for the data recording to the removable media are the same as on the CDs.
The automatic deactivation of the removable media after data recording ('safely remove').
The remote database series and images list and image thumbnails request is added (DICOM Retrieve). The image thumbnails are the non-standard functionality (it is not described in the standard) and they are backed-up only by the Makhaon Storage.
The list of software supported includes MS Vista now. The package software and installer meet these software requirements and were tested on its basis.
The web interface of Makhaon Storage was created. It is the optional storage component.
Interface is created and tested in IE 6.7, Opera, Firefox, Chrome, Safari browsers.
It makes it possible for several users to work simultaneously. AJAX was used where necessary. For example, the DICOM devices verify (can be multithreaded), DICOM Query - waits for the DICOM connection to be finished, some storage settings, queue manager, etc.
Interface is able to:
Authenticate the user (all the pages apart from the main one are protected from viewing by the authentication system).
View the local image database at different levels - studies/patients, series, images, separate images.
Local database can be filtered on different parameters; it can be sorted on any displayed database field by ascending/descending. The fields displaying is set separately for each user.
The studies, series, images can be exported to the other DICOM device or deleted.
The study report and separate images can be viewed.
The pictures can be zoomed in/out, the window/level can be changed, images can be rotated at angles divisible by 90°, and mirrored in two different planes.
Remote database. DICOM data can be requested from the remote database (Query/Retrieve).
All the storage options are realized in the web-interface. Addition, editing, deletion, and verifying of DICOM devices and image volumes are possible. Also possible is the data transfer between image volumes. User addition, user delete, user editing and displayed field editing. Other options: local DICOM configuration, queues parameters, forward rules, additional settings, study database parameters, database backup, image database service.
The forward queues operations are displayed in the real time mode. The queues can be paused and restarted.
The user restriction is created. Each user can have the access to administration, view, delete, sending, query or retrieve. The same restrictions are made on the basic interface.
The user data and user access editor is added.
The MS Vista is one of the supported software now.
September, 20, 2008
In the print composer images are automatically inserted into nearest free cell.
The new "Cobb Angle" tool is added. The function of manually operated 'study described' and 'study reviewed' check boxes are added. The corresponding options are added.
The station processes 3 new subclasses of CT images.
The function of remote image database inquiry (DICOM query) for the certain date period is added.
The images import/export windows interface is improved.
The automatic function of stale studies delete is added, as well as corresponding options and log records are.
The lost files and records are collected in the split thread, as long-term operations; user interface is improved.
The deinterlace filter is replaced by a more advanced one.
The VirtulaDub filters support is added, making it possible to plug any of the VirtulaDub filters.
The study manager interface is improved.
Automatic study transfer to the remote DICOM devices function is added.
May, 5, 2008.
The 3D modeling library is successfully integrated into the workstation.
The 'MPR', 'MPI' modes are available, as well as surface rendering, fly-through mode, special dental reconstruction mode (Curved Planar Reconstruction or CPR); 3D calculation of distances and angles, on the calibrated images (CT) measure of Hounsfield units is available also.
It is possible to clip the reconstructed images segments, etc.
All the products:
The automatic font sizing function is improved.
The mask averaging mode added. The mask can be averaged from any of series images. The averaging limits can be set in the on-line mode. Averaging can improve the obtained subtracted images quality a lot.
There is the automatic calibrating (according to the catheter caliber) mode for angiographic images now.
The 'Polyline' tool is added.
The automatic window/level setting by central ray is added.
In case the images for print are added, the addition can be vertical or horizontal.
The forward rules editor is added.
January, 29, 2008.
The 3D visualization technology is licensed. Its integration to Makhaon PACS and testing on the basis of the Makhaon PACS software is performed.
The image displaying engines are rewritten with the regard to medical black and white displays.
The opportunity to store the data from different data sources like DICOM CDs, local folders, remote DICOM devices (with (DICOM Query/Retrieve), to the storage database appeared.
The functionality for different images format store to the local, network or removable media is created.
The forward planner is created. Forwarding can occur not just right away when the files are in the queue, but also on specific time periods and days specified.
The forwards are independent, and every one of them is set according to the simple rules.
September, 27, 2007.
The CD data verify function is added.
The function of data recording to the High Density DVD R, High Density DVD RAM, Blue Ray R, Blue Ray RE devices is added.
August, 25, 2007.
The pause function is added for the database addition queue.
The addition queue is saved in case of program restart.
The GSPS - Grayscale Softoscopy Presentation State support is added.
It is the image view state saving functionality.
All the overlays, window/level values, scale, relative image shift, rotation angles, mirroring, masking and color table (LUT) are saved.
The data is stored in special files in the format corresponding to the DICOM standard.
Files can be read, applied, changed, transferred and recorded to the CD. Files are added to the corresponding study and are processed together.
All the GSPS file processing is transparent for user, and is activated with the help of the 'save presentation state' option.
The files can be created from scratch or modified (in case they are obtained from the third-party apparatus or station).
The second OLE interface is added.
The HL7 2 OLE peripheral module is created. The studies are obtained from the HL7 files and are added to the server database from the OLE interface.
In this way the Worklist server is able to support the HL7 now.
The Makhaon DICOM CD Writer program is created.
It is able to write (or add) the data to the disks in the DICOM format, as well as create ISO images with DICOM structure. The DICOM-disks view Makhaon Lite for CD software, delivered together with the CD Writer, is added to the disk.
May, 5, 2007.
The connections log is added. Every connection and every operation (store/send/echo/query/retrieve) can be added to the log and saved to the hard disk.
DICOM Storage commitment is added. It provides information reception and successful storage to the image base. SC is transferred to the apparatus according to their enquiry after the successful store to the base is finished.
The function for getting notifications about the events for the system storage administrators is added. The notifications are shown in case of any critical events - for example, volume filling and other volume switching, the forward queue error and stop, etc. The notifications can be sent to the tray hint message, e-mail, WinPopup, to the text file or printer.
The retry number in case of forward queues error and retry pause options are added.
The lost files search is added.
The function for the continuous storage operation in case of program options change is added. The corresponding working threads are restarted for the new application options. The only option impossible to change without storage stop is the IP port.
The queues are able to store the lists of files that weren't sent before storage quit. That means that it is possible to stop them, quit the storage and restart it again. The files in queues will be sent to the nodes specified.
The new status line - studies amount in volume specified - is added to the image volume options window.
Study manager window is added. It gives the opportunity to:
View the studies, series and images list.
Use the full-functional filtration on any study field in the database.
Sort the study list on any field.
View the separate images in the preview window.
Delete the studies, series and images chosen.
Transfer the studies, series and images chosen to any DICOM device.
Move the studies chosen from one volume to another.
The interface is updated, simplified and consistent. Some of the new options are set automatically.
The interface is updated, simplified and consistent. Some options are set automatically at the present time; others were deleted due to the new updated Working Station interface. As a result, the package settings are greatly simplified without any functionality loss.
The patients/studies list filtering functionality is improved. Generally speaking, all the studies filters in all software packages are consistent now.
The remote control function with the help of a button, plugged to any free COM port, is added. The COM1 - COM16 are processed.
The multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) characteristics are improved. It concerns mostly the objects that were hard to reconstruct (like the images with long distance between the plates, including most of MR series). At the present time the reconstruction quality on any planes number (images with long distance between the planes inclusive) is almost equal to the original images quality.
The automatic archiving interface is improved. The disk size is now defined automatically, and the studies amount is chosen according to the disk size.
The histogram tool operation principle is changed. At the present time histogram is the simple line overlays, and it is calculated along these lines. It is possible to add any overlays number at one and the same time; the graph displays the current histogram, which is the last chosen one.
The histogram graph is calibrated on X- axis in mm, in case if the image is calibrated on its size.
The records and images export function with the help of OLE technology is added (for the third-party hospital networks).
The function of hospital system studies enquiry function through OLE interface is added.
The program interface is improved and consistent.
The 'delete patients from the database' manually-operated function appeared.
The Guardant Net key operation function is added. It is possible to install one key on the hospital server and use any number of software licenses purchased in the local network (or VPN).
There is an opportunity for the remote key reprogramming, so there is no need in their replacement in case of additional license purchase.
January, 22, 2007.
The several image volumes operation function is added. The volumes can be switched automatically as they are filed.
The system of forward queues for sending to DICOM nodes is created.
The user authentication system is added; access to the graphic interface is restricted.
At the present time the Storage can be used as NT service.
There is the capability to set the initial patient's and study's identificators. The autoincrement algorithm for the both fields is improved.
The function for several series simultaneous opening is created. The series can be open on the current program desktop, as well as on additional displays. There can be any number of series opened simultaneously; the series number is limited by the available memory space only.
When the series is opened off the program desktop, it can be enlarged to full screen size, and you can use them as ordinary series: view them, size them, describe, save on the disk, etc.
The simultaneous operation of 3-4 and more displays is possible.
The study manager window interface is rewritten
The image set on the buttons is replaced by the new one.
The file saving window interface and ISO image creation interface are improved.
September, 15, 2006.
Makhaon Storage has forwarding capabilities. It is possible to send from any node to one or several nodes. All the images can be sent either with tag absence/presence or tag match condition filters.
New tools are added - the double angle, white diaphragms - iris and rectangular ones.
The Makhaon Lite for CD is released. It is recorded by the workstation and is delivered together with the CDs, what makes the full-functional DICOM files view possible on any PC with no loss of quality.
It makes it possible to view the files on the CD and perform all the sizing, available on the workstation. It gives an opportunity to view the loops in video mode, to view the study report (if it was saved to the disk) as well as scanning image (reference line, scout line).
The user panel is added. All the main window tools are displayed here. The tools display function is added on the main panel, on the user panel and on the print panel to simplify the interface.
The interface of the data transfer to the remote DICOM devices is improved.
The new function of the studies filtering on any fields (up to 6 fields simultaneously) appeared in the workstation.
The Makhaon Worklist server is fully rewritten; it became more logical and comfortable.
July, 30, 2006.
The import to TIFF format is created.
All the overlays are subdivided into three types - print, DICOM and measuring, and they can be activated and deactivated independently while displaying and printing for all of the images at once, and (while printing) for each separate image also.
There is the 'first image overlay' mode for the print mode. It enabled DICOM overlays (at the image angles) for the first image only and it is disabled for the rest of images printed. It reduces the page information load while printing.
The new overlay types are added, as well as the 'L' and 'R' marks and the so called virtual collimators (diaphragms) - rectangular and iris.
It is now possible to import from the BMP and JPG formats. It is possible to import in 8-bit and 24-bit mode, and there is the capability to modify the patient and study information fields of the obtained DICOM images series.
The fast switching function for DICOM printers (or bins) is created.
There is an image real size calculation function now. After corresponding button pressing, the calibrated images scale is set the way the hard copy film image obtained corresponds to the physical dimensions.
The function for portrait/landscape orientation is provided for in the DICOM print mode.
The local images base can be allocated in any disk or network space now. The corresponding function (local image base location) is added to the Configurator.
June, 6, 2006.
The workstation 2.3 version is released. The main difference is the large size images processing speed. For such images the second graphic 2D engine was created. The processing speed for 256x256 and 4000x4000 pixel images of any pixel bit depth is almost the same.
June, 6, 2006.
The Statist-program was released. It gives the opportunity to provide the single-level or multilevel statistics on any data from software database. The result is displayed as html page with the print or save file options.
April, 5, 2006.
The velocity and acceleration calculation on the calibrated ultrasonic scanning image areas in M-mode and on the Doppler are made.
The area calculation on calibrated regions for the 'oval' 'rectangle' 'hand-free' 'polygon' and other tools is added.
The multilevel undo/redo is added for the report editor (nesting is up to 1000 modifications).
The fields.dba and fields.hlt files redactors are added. These files intended for list of patient and study info and key words highlighting in the editor.
The CD studies copy algorithm is improved; the files with multi-frames are converted into series at once.
The studies series and images calculation is made; the data is displayed in the study manager window. The general number of studies and the number of studies chosen is also displayed there.
The 'for 365 days' studies filters and 'specified year' filters (2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, etc) are added. The list of studies dates is created automatically.
March, 1, 2006.
The report templates export and import in xml format in templates editor have been created.
The AVI improved save function is added. It is possible to choose any of the video-compressors available (or save the AVI data without any compression), to set the compression degree, the frame size, the replay speed (the speed data is taken from the file if possible); it is also possible to choose the pixel bit depth for the files obtained.
February, 24, 2006.
Video-capture became the full-function DICOM device.
DICOM Store SCU and DICOM WorkList SCU. It is able to send the studies to the remote DICOM devices on the network and enquire the planned studies list.
Deinterlace filter is added to the video capture. It eliminates the "comb" effect observed in cases of dynamic image capture.
A rather interesting functionality was added to the workstation:
It is possible to create several so called screen settings. They can be applied depending on the modality, name and research area. It is possible to modify the color LUT, the calibration, the display splitting and the relative scale. In the same way it is possible to set the different splitting kinds scale.
One can save the study report to the hard disk as the ordinary html file now.
February, 20, 2006.
1. There is the capability now to add the series and images in videocapture to an existing study.
2. The color schemes (LUT) were highly developed, now it is possible to edit, download and save them. The color schemes can be multicolored or black and white; and, linear or non-linear.
3. The capability for the bind to cine rate, if it is present. The ultrasonic scanning images and angiography images were tested in this relation.
4. The Worklist support is created. There are two program variants: either it is the program-layer between the user and the DICOM network, or it is the separate recorder space. The apparatus on DICOM protocol can be connected to the program and obtain the studies list on the current or following day. Apart from the standard DICOM fields, such as patient's full name, identification number, sex, date of birth, etc, it is possible to store the random data concerning patient or study. For example, telephone number, job, insurance policy information, etc.
5. The preliminary universal statist-program version is created. It makes the ready-made reports on the basis of the html templates with no data or outlay restriction. The reports can be printed or stored as html/xls files.
6. The big size DICOM images transfer speed is greatly increased (up to 170 Mb or more).
7. The support of calibration regions on the ultrasonic scanning images is realized. The sizing in all standard units, per cents, Decibels, centimeters, seconds, hertz, dB per second, cm per second, square cm, cm? per second, etc. is possible now. The different units sizing according to the different calibration axis (X and Y) is also available.
8. There is the opportunity now to save study report to the CD together with DICOM and jpg files.
9. The workstation can save the default DSA settings.
10. There is a rotation function - it is possible to rotate the image for 90° clockwise and counterclockwise, there is also mirroring on two planes. All the overlays, put to the image by the user, are rotated together with the image.
11. There is the filters rollback function now (activated with one button).
12. The bind of the window/level values, set by the user, to the keys is provided.
November, 15, 2005
The extended logging of DICOM connection is created. All the events of the DICOM communications are recorded to the files.
November, 15, 2005
The work on the plug-in for the operations with "Sophy" gamma cameras is over. It is possible to get the files from the camera, transfer them to the camera, and view the images in files.
October, 13, 2005.
"Makhaon DICOM Dump" utility function for the DICOM files analysis and editing is available for the free download.
September, 27, 2005.
The filters are created and integrated to the software package. The Laplace, Hipass, Find Edges (Top Down), Sharpen, Edge Enhance, Color Emboss, Soften, Blur, Soften (Less) are instantiated.
September, 12, 2005
August, 20, 2005.
The principle to display the overlays in the sub-displays corners is changed. The information display is more flexible now.
August, 20, 2005
Three new interface themes are added.
August, 20, 2005
The DSA algorithm is changed. As the result of optimization the real time mode operation is possible now - at Pentium 4 3.0 the subtraction speed and display speed can be up to the 50 frames per second.
July, 27, 2005
The ability to work with 32-bit images is added. Thus, the images with pixel bit depth of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 č 32 bits can be processed now. In case of pixel bit depth 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 bits it is possible to work with one, three and four color planes.
June, 28, 2005
The software version 2.0 will be released soon!
May, 13, 2005
DICOM Print is successfully integrated into the software package. The single interface is used as for the usual print, as for the DICOM print.
April, 13, 2005
The plug-in support system is created. Not to 'overcharge' the main program files, the part of the specific code for different users can be generated to the dll files, which are activated, read and operated automatically.
March, 19, 2005
The network transfer support is finished. It is possible to get and transfer the data in any standard transfer syntax.
March, 19, 2005.
The video capture was fully redesigned. The video capture is subdivided into several windows, one is intended for the video capture namely, and the second window is the patient information (it is possible to give the study report in Videocapture ). It made the software operation easier and faster, especially in case when it works with analog information sources.
March, 18, 2005
The new corresponding DICOM Dump is created. The common one is built in workstation. The new dump knows all the standard tags (according to the last 2003 standard), their correspondence to the VR (Value Representation). It reads the lines with VM (Value Multiplicity) correctly. It is able to add, update and delete any tags. The tag constructor is also created.
March, 15, 2005
'Add data' function for CD was created. Workstation is able to add data to the existing DICOM images on the CD.
March, 14, 2005
DSA is rewritten to be able to display the results in the main windows, not in the additional window. It turns to be more comfortable. The DSA algorithm speed optimization is in the works now.
January, 26, 2005.
The site is fully reorganized; some site divisions are still updated at the moment. To our customers' attention: the tech support division has password-based access to the software modules update files.
December, 9, 2004
The DICOM Print test version is in operation now. The integration into the software package is started.
December, 3, 2004.
The DSA (subtraction) creation is started. As linear, as random (set or preset) non-linear subtraction algorithms are possible.
November, 22, 2004.
The multiframe images translator is created for separate series generation. It is possible to activate this mode on default.
October, 12, 2004.
The print speed is increased, and less memory space is consumed while the print mode is activated - all the processing is in 8-bit mode of 256 tonal gradations.